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when的用法有哪些

2019-06-27 17:20:35文/崔芮淇

when作为句首出场率特别高的单词,作为拥有多种词性单词的它,一直都是选择填空汉译英等题型的考点,以下就是when在不同词性下的不同用法和例句

when的用法

一、作为副词,它有以下的用法:

1. 作为疑问副词,引导特殊疑问句,意为“什么时候;何时”。

如: ( 1 ) When will they come back?

( 2 ) What time will they come back?

回答 when 引导的从句,不一定指出具体的时间点。如回答句( 1 )可用 tomorrow, next month 等。而回答 what time 引导的问句,则必须说出具全的时间点,如 at two o'clock, at five past ten 等。

2. 作连接副词,引导名词性从句或不定式,意为“什么时候”。从句使用陈述句语序,时态根据实际情况而定。

如: ( 1 ) I'd like to know when they will come. 我想知道他们什么时候来。( when 引导宾语从句)

( 2 ) Can you tell me when the bank opens? 你能告诉我银行什么时候开门吗?( when 引导宾语从句)

( 3 ) When she'll be back depends much on the weather. 她何时回来在很大程度上取决于天气。( when 引导主语从句)

( 4 ) Have you decided when to go sightseeing? 你们已经决定什么时候去郊游了吗?( when 引导不定式结构)

3. 作疑问代词,常和介词 since, till, up to 等连用,意为“什么时候”。

如: ( 1 ) Since when have they had the house? 他们从什么时候起有这幢房子的?

( 2 ) Till when is the library open? 图书馆开放到几点呢?

4. 作关系副词,引导限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。

如: ( 1 ) The days are gone forever when the Chinese people were looked down upon. 中国人民被人轻视的日子一去不复返了。

( 2 ) The main school holidays are from mid-December till early February, when the days are long and warm. 学校的主要假期是从 12 月中旬到 2 月初,这段时间里白天长而且很温暖。

( 3 ) Considering (the time) when these paintings were done, they are in excellent condition. 考虑到这些油画的创作时期,它们保存的状况是极好的。

( 4 ) Do you remember (the time) when the three of us went on a picnic? 你还记得我们三个人去野餐的那段时光吗?

在定语从句中, that 在某些条件下可用来代替 when ,这时其先行词通常是 time, day, moment, year 等。

如: ( 1 ) His mother died on the evening that he was born. 他母亲死于他出生的那晚。

( 2 ) I stay at home on the days that I am not busy. 在我不忙的时候,我就呆在家里。

在某些含有“时间”的名词词组后面,由于该名词不表示时间,或整个名词词组已用作连词,所以不用 when 引导。如: the moment, the instant, the minute, the second 等等,意为“一……就……”,引导时间状语从句。

如: ( 1 ) The first time I went to China, I visited Beijing. 我第一次来中国就游览了北京。

( 2 ) I thought her nice and honest the first time I met her. 我第一次见到她时就认为她诚实。

( 3 ) The instant I saw him I knew he was my brother. 我一看到他就知道他是我兄弟。

二、作为从属连词,引导状语从句,表示多种语法意义:

1. 表示时间,意为“当……时;在……的时候”。

A. 在时间、条件等状语从句里,用一般现在时表示将来时;当需要表达将来完成的意义时,必须使用现在完成时来代替。

如: ( 1 ) When you see him, please say hello to him. 见到他时,代我问他好。

( 2 ) When you have finished your experiment, please tidy the lab and put everything back in the cupboards. 当你们做完实验后,请把实验室整理好并把物品放回柜子中。

B. 表示过去发生的事情,在 when 引导的时间状语从句的主从复合句中,动作发生在先的用过去完成时,在后的用过去时。

如: ( 1 ) When I was in Japan, I bought some beautiful pearls. 我在日本时,买了一些漂亮的珍珠。

( 2 ) When I reached the station, the train had left. 当我到达火车站时,火车已经开走了。

2. 表示前面的叙述所没有提到过的信息。它总是对所描述的事件予以引人注目的强调,意为“这时;突然”;当位于句末的分句具有引种用法时,大致有以下三种情况:

A. when 分句前面的分句使用过去进行时。

如: ( 1 ) He was still smiling when the door opened and his wife came in. 他正笑着的时候,门突然开了,他妻子走了进来。

( 2 ) I was thinking of this when I heard my name called. 我正想着这件事时,突然听到有人叫我的名字。

B. when 分句前面的分句使用 was (were) about to, was (were) on the point 等。

如: ( 1 ) We were about to start when it began to rain. 我们刚要出发就开始下雨了。

( 2 ) He was on the point of leaving when someone knocked at the door. 他刚要走就有人敲门。

C. when 分句之前的分句用过去完成时,其中 sb had hardly / scarcely /barely … when 已成为固定词组。如:

( 1 ) We had hardly fallen asleep when the bell rang. 我们刚刚入睡,铃声就响了起来。

( 2 ) He had scarcely arrived when he had to leave again. 他刚刚到达就又要离开了。

3. 表示条件,相当于 if ,引导条件状语从句。

如: How can I get a job when I can't even read or write? 如果我连读和写都不会,我怎么能找到工作呢?

4. 表示对比,主要有以下两种情况:

A. 相当于 whereas, while, since, 意为“既然;然而”。

如: ( 1 ) How can I help them to understand when they won't listen to me? 既然他们不愿听我的,我又怎么能帮助他们弄明白呢?

( 2 ) They have only three copies when we need five. 他们只有三本,而我们却需要五本。

B. when 从句中使用虚拟语气,意为“本来……却……”。

如: ( 1 ) She paid when she could have entered free. 本来可以免费入场,而她却付了款。

( 2 ) She stopped trying when she might have succeeded next time. 她本来下次有可能获得成功,但她却不再尝试了。

( 3 ) They were gossiping, when they should have been working. 他们本该工作,却在那里说别人的闲话。

5. 由 when 等引导的状语从句,如果主语与主句的主语一致或是 it ,谓语动词又含 be 动词时,主语和 be 动词常常被省略,就变成“ when + V-ing/ V-ed/ adj/ 介词词组”的结构。

如: ( 1 ) When in Rome, do as Romans do. 入乡随俗。

( 2 ) When (we are ) young, we are full of hope. 年轻时,我们大家总是充满希望。

( 3 ) Don't reach sideways when standing on a ladder. 站在梯子上时,不要侧着身子去够东西

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